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Clinker is lump- or nodule-shaped (usually 0-50mm in diameter). Clinker is produced by sintering limestone and alumino-silicate (clay) in integrated cement plants. This happens during the cement kiln stage.
Clinker is the main ingredient in Portland cement. To produce Portland cement, clinker is mixed with gypsum and other cementitious materials in a cement grinder. To produce specialized cements, clinker can be ground with slag, pozzolan, silica, and fly ash, among other materials.
Clinker can be stored in dry conditions for 6-12 months.
Mediterranean area, Middle East, Asia
Gypsum is an evaporite or soft sulfate mineral commonly found in layered sedimentary deposits. Gypsum is typically associated with halite, anhydrite, sulfur, calcite, and dolomite and is composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate.
In addition to the naturally-forming mineral, synthetic gypsum can also be manufactured.
Gypsum has a wide variety of uses — primarily, though, it is used for plaster and wallboard as well as cement production. Gypsum can also be used as a soil conditioner or fertilizer and in surgical splints and casting models or dental plasters. In the cement mix, gypsum is used as a hardening retarder.
White cement is commonly used for aesthetic and decorative architectural works. It is also used as a binding material in prefabricated concrete elements and artistic sculpture works
Natural gypsum can be stored for several years in a properly-terraced ground.
Spain, Morocco, Mexico, Oman, Thailand
Coal is a sedimentary rock with a black or brownish-black color. Coal most commonly occurs in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The main element is carbon. It can be combined with variable quantities of other elements such as hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Coal is a combustible and frequently used to generate electricity or heat. In the cement industry, coal is a common power source for kilns used to manufacture clinker.
Coal can be stored for up to one year in a properly-terraced ground.
USA, South Africa, Australia
Limestone is an organic sedimentary rock created when shell, coral, algal, or other debris accumulates. Limestone can also be formed by calcium carbonate from a nearby lake or ocean. This, then, creates a chemical sedimentary rock.
A main raw material for clinker and additive ingredients for cement, limestone has a number of critical uses. Most limestone is made into crushed stone to be used in construction, or for road base and railroad ballast. It can also be fired in a kiln together with shale, sand, and other materials to produce clinker.
On its own, powdered limestone is commonly used as a filler in paper, paint, rubber, and plastics, as well as roofing granules.
Limestone can be stored for several years in a properly-terraced ground.
Slag is a non-metallic byproduct that occurs during the steel-making process. Produced in blast furnaces when molten steel and impurities are separated, slag initially appears as a molten liquid melt. As slag cools down and solidifies it becomes a complex solution of silicates and oxides.
Steel slag is used as a granular base or aggregate material in construction applications, or as an environmentally-friendly substitute of clinker in cement production.
Slag can be stored for 6-12 months in dry conditions.
Europe, Asia, South America